African-American Experience and Issues of Race and Racism in U.S. Schools
and Trends in the Education of Blacks — an Oct. 2003
report by the National Center for Education Statistics.
The Economic Mobility of Black and White
Families — a 2007 report by the Pew Charitable Trust
Foundation comparing the economic progress of Black and White
families — the data show that the gap is widening.
and the Recession: How Inequity Rigged the Economy and How to
Change the Rules — a report that tells the stories of
people of color who have been disproportionately affected by the
Unequal Opportunity Lenders: Analyzing Racial Disparities
in Big Banks’ Higher Priced Lending — a 2009 study
showing that “Among high income borrowers in 2006, African
Americans were three times as likely as whites to pay higher prices
for mortgages — 32.1% compared to 10.5 %. Hispanics were nearly as
likely as African Americans to pay higher prices for their
mortgages at 29.1%.”
A Good Credit Score Did Not Protect Latino and Black
Borrowers — this 2012 study of mortgages signed
during the years 2004-2008 shows that African American and Latino
borrowers with high credit scores were three or more times likely
to be inappropriately “pushed into” high cost, high risk mortgages
than whites with the same credit scores.
African American Achievement in America — a
brief and valuable 2003 report by the Education Trust Foundation —
includes data about and discussion of the education/achievement gap
and about schools and programs that are overcoming it.
Confronting the Low Expectations of Racism —
an excellent 2004 article by Julie Landsman that details the
sometimes overt and sometimes subtle or unconscious ways educators
express and act on low expectations in their interactions with
African American youth and their parents/caregivers.
Mis-Education of the Negro — this is an online copy
of Carter G. Woodson’s still vital 1933 book, The Mis-Education of
the Negro, with an excellent Introduction, “History Is a Weapon,”
by Charles Wesley and Thelma Perry, who write: “The most imperative
and crucial element in Woodson’s concept of mis-education hinged on
the education system’s failure to present authentic Negro History
in schools and the bitter knowledge that there was a scarcity of
literature available for such a purpose, because most history books
gave little or no space to the black man’s presence in America.
Some of them contained casual references to Negroes but these
generally depicted them in menial, subordinate roles, more or less
sub-human. Such books stressed their good fortune at having been
exposed, through slavery, to the higher (white man’s) civilization.
There were included derogatory statements relating to the
primitive, heathenish quality of the African background, but
nothing denoting skills, abilities, contributions or potential in
the image of the Blacks, in Africa or America. Woodson considered
this state of affairs deplorable, an American tragedy, dooming the
Negro to a brain-washed acceptance of the inferior role assigned to
him by the dominant race, and absorbed by him through his
Mind the Gap: Why Good Schools are Failing Black
Students — an excellent 2009 radio documentary about
how in many well-funded suburban schools where white students are
doing well, many black and hispanic students, even youth from
middle-class families, are falling behind. This one-hour radio
documentary looks at the causes of the minority achievement gap
through the stories of students, teachers, and parents at a diverse
public high school in Maplewood, NJ.
Racial Divide Runs Deep in U.S. Schools, Study Finds
— a short article about a 2012 report of data from 72,000 schools
in the U.S. that reveals many racial disparities in U.S. schools,
especially disproportionately high suspension and expulsion rates
for African American youth. The report also includes information
about schools that are breaking these patterns and achieving
success in addressing the achievement gap.
Big Racial Gap in Suspension of Middle School
Students — a 2010 report that documents the racial
disparity in school suspension rates, raising serious questions
about discipline policies and how they are implemented.
School Discipline: Tougher on African
Americans — an editorial exploring racism in schools,
particularly in the fact that black students are written up and
disciplined more often than white students.
for Equitable Discipline of African American Students
— an article discussing the idea that African Americans are often
encouraged to act out by culture. It challenges educators to think
critically about the reasons why a student is misbehaving before
employing disciplinary measures.
Ability and Disability: Gaming the System? — this
article provides a specific example of the testing system in
Florida public schools and describes how the testing system
over-identifies students of color and poor students as having
disabilities, based on the results of only one test.
Like Me — an excellent short film by Kiri Davis about
issues of racial stereotyping, identity, and appearance, especially
as these relate to the experience of African American girls and
young women — includes footage of a recent implementation of an
experiment in which African American children are asked to choose
between and show their preference for either a Black or a white
Souls of Black Girls — a video trailer for the longer
film of this name — a goup of Black women discuss ways in which
media images of Black women are frustratingly demeaning and
the Racial Achievement Gap: The Best Strategies of the Schools We
Send Them To — a very good article by Dr. Pedro
Noguera, Professor of Education at New York University.
Schools Where Race Does Not Matter: The Role and Significance of
Race in the Racial Achievement Gap — another
excellent article by Dr. Pedro Noguera, professor of Education at
New York University
Trouble with Black Boys: The Role and Influence of Environmental
and Cultural Factors on the Academic Performance of African
American Males — a very good article by Harvard
scholar Pedro Noguera — valuable for all who are interested in
addressing the education/achievement gap.
Academic Ignorance and Black Intelligence — a 1972
article that foreshadows the development of what is now called
culturally responsive or culturally competent teaching — by
linguistic scholar William Labov, who makes the point that
“inner-city children do not necessarily have inferior mothers,
language, or experience, but that the language, family style, and
ways of living of inner-city children are significantly different
from the standard culture of the classroom, and that this
difference is not always properly understood by teachers and
psychologists. Linguists believe that we must begin to adapt our
school system to the language and learning styles of the majority
in the inner-city schools.”
Webpage — the home page of scholar activisit Shawn
Ginwright, a leading expert on African American youth, youth
activism, and youth development. He’s author of a number of good
books (including Black in School: Afrocentric Reform, Urban Youth,
and the Promise of Hip-Hop Culture, and Black Youth Rising:
Activism & Radical Healing in Urban America) and co-founder of
the Institute for Radical Healing, a newly formed institute
dedicated to pioneering research and wellness practices that build
the capacity of individuals and communities of color to sustain
social change efforts.
Project — a historical project that presents a
critically reflective timeline and more about race relations and
gender issues in the U.S. School ID = diversity and password =
The Politics of Children’s Literature: What’s Wrong with
the Rosa Parks Myth? — an article and lesson plan by
Herb Kohl about the problems inherent in how the story of Rosa
Parks is often told and taught in schools and about the importance
of teaching the truth about her life of committed activism.
Wealth Divide Project — research and publications
documenting ways in which government policies have contributed to
Bias Built Into Tests — a 2000 article about a
successful case brought against a statewide Texas aptitude test
that was found to have racial bias built into its design — the
article also explains that the test construction methods used in
designing this test are common.
Barack Obama’s Speech on Race — as a candidate
President Obama delivered this speech on issues of race in America
— read the transcript and listen to it here, or, go to this link to see
and hear the speech.
Forum — video of a March 2010 panel discussion with
many key African American leaders, scholars, educators, community
activists, and others — the discussion focuses on challenges
facing the African-American community and the nation, the question
of whether America is in a “post-racial” era after the election of
President Barack Obama, and the future of race relations in the
U.S. and world.
Historic Reversals, Accelerating Resegregation, and the
Need for New Integration Strategies — an important
2007 report about the increasing segregation and inequality of U.S.
schools — by Gary Orfield and Chungmei Lee of the Civil Rights
Project, at UCLA.
Boundary Crossing for Diversity, Equity and Achievement:
Inter-District School Desegregation and Educational
Opportunity — a 2009 study that “provides an overview
of the educational and social benefits of eight inter-district
school desegregation programs – from Boston to East Palo
Alto, CA — that have enabled disadvantaged, Black and Latino
students to cross school district boundary lines and attend far
more affluent, predominantly White and privileged suburban public
schools. These programs, some of which date back to the Civil
Rights Movement, grew out of grassroots struggles for social
justice and are aimed at reducing inequality by assuring that
students who have traditionally had the fewest educational
opportunities would gain access to the “best” schools.
Despite the fact that these programs are out of sync with the
current political framing of problems and solutions in the field of
education, the research on these programs to date suggests that
they are far more successful than recent choice and accountability
policies at closing the achievement gaps and offering meaningful
A Multiracial Society with Segregated Schools: Are We
Losing the Dream? — a 2003 report by the UCLA Civil
Rights Project about the current and ongoing resegregation of
schools in the U.S.
Race in American Public Schools: Rapidly Resgregating
School Districts — a 2002 study by the UCLA Civil
Rights Project about the current and ongoing resegregation of
in the U.S.
The Little Rock Nine: 50 Years Later — seven
of the nine African American students who first integrated Central
High School in Little Roc, AK, speak about their experiences in
this media presentation of interview clips and photographs —
listen and make the connections to current events.
Desegregation Changed Us: The Effects of Racially Mixed Schools on
Students and Society— the final report of the
“Understanding Race and Education Study,” completed in 2004. The
central finding is that desegregation “fundamentally changed the
people who lived through it.” “Desegregation made the vast majority
of students who attended these schools less racially prejudiced and
more comfortable around people of different backgrounds. “Yet it
had a more limited impact on the larger society.”
African American Educator from Jena, LA Speaks Out— a
video interview with a former Principal and Assistant
Superintendent in Jena, Louisiana, who is African American — he
was principal of an all-black high school in Jena before
desgregation — he speaks out here about past and present
segregation and racism in schools — you may either watch on video
or just listen to the radio broadcast — very informative!
Center — an organization working to “advance racial
justice through research, advocacy and journalism.”
the Grade: A Racial Justice Report Card — a study by
ERASE (now the Applied Research Center) including information about
how to collect data for assessing your own school district.
Facing the Consequences: An Examination of Racial
Discrimination in U.S. Schools — a valuable research
report from March 2000 — includes information about tracking,
teachers/teaching, disciplinary policies, graduation rates, and
Racism — an organization that “develops and promotes
policies and initiatives to end the perpetuation of institutional
racism in arenas such as public school education, housing, health
care, and economic development.”
A Guide for African American Parents: How to Help Your
Child Care for College and Career — put together by
The Education Trust.
of Author/Historian James Loewen — good information
about the teaching of U.S. history and Loewen’s numerous and award
winning books and research, including discussion of and excerpts
from: Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your High School
History Textbook Got Wrong; Teaching What Really Happened; Lies
Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong; Sundown Towns: A
Hidden Dimension of American Racism; and more.
Sounds of Silence: Talking Race in Music Education —
a 2007 article about the importance of creating an approach to
music education that’s anti-racist in its goals and practices.
Breaking Down Barriers — a report on a high school
program in Michigan that successfully brought students together
across racial and other social and cultural divisions.
Bridges — an organization that offers free lesson
plans to promote interracial understanding.
National Alliance of
Black School Educators (NABSE) — an organization
“dedicated to improving the educational experiences and
accomplishments of African American youth through the development
and use of instructional and motivational methods that increase
levels of inspiration, attendance and overall achievement”.
Engaging African American Males in Reading — a great
article by Alfred Tatum, with many useful insights and great
teaching ideas and examples — published in Educational Leadership
in 2006, and available here online.
Classroom Cultural Ecology: The Dynamics of Classroom Life
in Schools Serving Low-Income African American
Children — a 2000 research report that details the
characteristics and practices of effective teachers working with
low-income African American children — lots of valuable insight
Race and the Schooling of Black Americans —
an insightful article, from 1992, by Stanford Professor, Claude
“Stereotype Threat” and Black College Students —
another valuable article by Stanford Professor, Claude Steele, from
1999 — explains the concept of stereotype threat and related
research — very useful to educators and teachers.
Black Students Are Not Culturally Biased Against Academic
Achievement — this study about African American
students’ attitudes toward school and academic achievement shows
that where an anti-achievement attitude develops, it is “over time
and is most likely to occur in schools where blacks are grossly
underrepresented in the most challenging courses” — i.e.,
oppositional attitudes are “not learned in the black community, as
some have suggested, but are instead constructed in schools under
certain conditions, the product of life and experience in school,
not the home culture.”
Bias in Testing — an essay by Christopher Jencks
about this troubling and important issue.
and Education — a site with good programs and links
with a particular focus on continued segregation in U.S.
Supreme Court and School Diversity — a radio program
about two 2006 Supreme Court cases that call into question the
efforts of many school districts to integrate their schools —
includes tape of the Supreme Court hearings on Dec. 4, 2006.
Toward Justice: The Unfinished Legacy of Brown v. Board of
Education — an excellent collection of articles about
what the Brown case attempted to achieve and the extensive and
complex work that remains.
That Changed America — a good overview article about
Brown v. Board of Education, history of reaction to the decision,
and where we are now with regard to its goals.
Brown v. Board of Education: Classroom Activities and
Resources — lesson plans and curricular guides for
teaching about this important Supreme Court Case.
Brown v. Board of Education: An American
Legacy — a set of articles in Teaching Tolerance
Magazine about this important Supreme Court case and related issues
today — includes good classroom instructional materials.
The Supreme Struggle — a series of articles
in the New York Times about the Brown v. Board of Education case
and where we are now on the issues the case addressed.
Brown at 50: The Promise Unfulfilled — a
special 5-part series that takes stock of the impact of the Brown
v. Board of Education case — raises important questions about
current issues of race in education.
Brown: In America’s Classrooms Discussions about Race Remain Timely
and Relevant — an article about how some teachers
teach about the Brown decision and issues of race and racism.
Next Achievement Test: Closing the Black-White Test Score
Gap — a good recent article about this important
Diverse Students Initiative — a program designed to
help educators address the education gap “by providing
research-based resources for improving the teaching of racially and
ethnically diverse students.” Includes a set of online tools that
can be adapted for use in schools and classrooms.
Treisman’s Merit Workshop Model — an article about
the important work and ideas of Uri Treisman, who has demonstrated
how to improve teaching effectiveness when working with African
American students who are not doing well in school — he replaces
remedial approaches with an honors program approach rooted in group
collaboration and challenging problems in an environment of high
Treisman’s Faculty Home Page — read about Prof.
Treisman and access some of his publications.
the Reading Achievement Gap for African American Males
— an article about the work of Alfred Tatum, who in 2006 published
a book, Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males: Closing the
Brother Author: Writings from the African American Male
Summer Literacy Institute— an article by Alfred Tatum
about an excellent summer writing institute he runs for African
American young men.
Project — an exceptional math education program, now
nationally recognized, created by Civil Rights activist and Harvard
Ph.D., Bob Moses — a creative and culturally responsive approach
to teaching African American and other youth algebra — algebra is
a major gatekeeping course that often determines whether youth are
placed on the college prep path — the program works, and the
website includes lesson ideas and other useful information.
Prep — a successful program that demonstrates the
fundamental power and value of high expectations and real
opportunity in education.
Program — a program that “places academically average
students in advanced classes and supports them for success there”
— it has been very successful as measured by college admission
rates of program participants, most of whom are students from
groups with a history of high dropout rates and underperformance in
Center for Accelerated Schools — an approach to
school reform based on the idea of providing students of limited
resources with accelerated, rather than remedial, instruction —
accelerated schools use ideas from gifted and talented education to
improve the education of students of limited resources, and it
Development Program — started by Yale professor of
child psychiatry, Dr. James Comer, this nationally recognized
program helps schools develop strong bonds with parents and
community that translate into significant academic performance
gains — Dr. Comer started with one school in a poor neighborhood
in New Haven, CT and has built a national model for school reform
that Develop Children — an excellent essay by Dr.
James Comer about the value of a systemic and developmental
approach to school reform — the ideas presented here are the
foundation of the Comer School Development Program, the success of
which has demonstrated the value of these ideas.
Achievement Network — a national coalition of
multiracial, urban-suburban school districts across the United
States that works “to discover, develop and implement the means to
ensure high academic achievement for students of color,
specifically African American and Latino students.”
Success for All
Foundation — a “comprehensive and effective
school-restructuring program for the education of our children in
reading, writing, mathematics, and the social sciences” — the
program has substantial evidence of success.
Students in Special and Gifted Education — a 2002
book, available online, that presents research by the National
Academy of Sciences documenting the disproportionately high number
of minority students in special education and the
disproportionately low number of minority students in gifted
Inequity in Special Education — a site with
information about and selections from a new book about this issue
by Gary Orfield and Daniel Losen.
A Ghetto Within a Ghetto — an article about the
research of Gary Orfield and Daniel Losen documenting that African
American children, especially males, are overrepresented in special
Addressing Over-Representation of African American Students
in Special Education — a recent research report that
presents data documenting this problem and things educators and
community members can do to address it.
Information Page — good articles and links provided
by the Center for Applied Linguistics.
Call-and-Response to Facilitate Language Mastery and Literacy
Acquisition Among African American Students — an
article about teaching language and literacy through a call and
response communication style.
the “Ebonics” Issue — published writings and public
presentations by John Rickford, a professor of linguistics at
Ebonics and Culturally Responsive Instruction: What Should Teachers
Do? — an excellent article by Lisa Delpit published
in Rethinking Schools — includes specific teaching ideas.
Embracing Ebonics and Teaching Standard English— a
helpful interview with Oakland teacher Carrie Street.
The Ebonics Debate: Power, Language, and the Education of
African-American Children — a number of chapters from
the excellent book of this title, available online.
Linguist Looks at the Ebonics Debate — a thoughtful,
well-reasoned discussion of this important issue.
— materials and online discussion of Ebonics at the site of the
Linguistic Society of America.
Ebonics Debate — an article published by the
Association of Black Psychologists.
Do You Speak American? African American English —
part of the PBS website which includes an essay written by Walt
Wolfram, who specializes in language and culture at North Carolina
Oakland Resolution on Ebonics — the resolution passed
by the Oakland Board of Education, and the supplemental policy
statement by the Superintendent of Schools, concerning students
with a background in African American Vernacular English. This
resolution became very controversial as many people misunderstood
it to mean that educators would be teaching students to speak and
write in African American Vernacular English or Ebonics.
Comments on Ebonics— email messages collected during
the “Ebonics” controversy in spring 1997 from internet discussion
lists for linguists, especially the American Dialect Society list
and a list for linguistic anthropologists — most represent the
informed opinions of linguists about the variety of English known
to them as African American Vernacular English, or Black Vernacular
English, and its place in the schools and society.
American Vernacular English — some good materials and
Nigger (the word), A Brief History — a good
background, historical article about the n-word.
The Meanings of a Word — an excellent essay,
by Gloria Naylor, that first appeared in the New York Times in
1986, about the n-word and the significance of context in
understanding its meaning and impact.
The “N-word” and the Racial Dynamics of Teaching — a
discussion in the Harvard Education Letter about the prevalence of
the n-word in schools, and about how teachers should respond — of
particular significance is that white teachers report being less
comfortable and less likely to address it than either African
American or Latino teachers.
Consigning the “N” Word to Personal History— a 2006
radio essay by an African American young man (at the time of the
piece a first year student at Howard University) who has decided
not to use the n-word.
A Roundtable Radio Discussion of the
N-Word — from NPR’s News and Notes
N.J. Communities Debate Use of the N-Word — listen to
a 2007 news radio segment about how a number of communities and
city councils haver asked their citizens to voluntarily refrain
from using the n-word.
Race through Cora Unashamed — a discussion of how
teachers can teach about race, racism, and the n-word, using
Langston Hughes’ short story, Cora Unashamed — includes good
specific ideas for teaching about the n-word as well as suggested
Examining Language in Cora Unashamed —
another good presentation about how to engage students in a
critically reflective analysis of langauge use in Langston Hughes’
story, Cora Unashamed, including the n-word — includes good
additional readings and resources as well as assignments and
teaching ideas for pre-reading preparation and post-reading
reflection and analysis.
Caricatures — a good presentation about the history
of the n-word and its use as a racial slur and demeaning caricature
of African Americans.
What’s In a
Name? Plenty, That’s What — a good essay about the
“moral and ethical issues [the n-word] raises for all of us who
want to be racially responsible, inclusive and well-intended in our
use of language” — includes discussion of Randall Kennedy’s
controversial book, Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome
New Word Order — an essay about use of the
n-word in popular culture.
and Ethnicity in Contemporary Art and Literature — an
extensive list of curricular units designed by teachers in the
Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
Lesson Plans for the Ithaca City School District’s
Participation in an MLK “Community Build” Project —
lesson plans developed by educators in Ithaca, NY as part of a
“community read and dialogue” project using Martin Luther King,
Jr.’s last book, Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community?
Major themes in the book are the topics of instruction and
African-American Art and the Political Dissent during the
Harlem Renaissance — a great curricular unit plan by
a teacher in the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
Trip: A Teaching and Learning Discussion — a
self-reflective essay about one college professor’s efforts to
change what and how she teaches to be more truly multicultural and
culturally responsive — includes a good discussion of language
issues that arise when doing this important work.
Racial Conflict in School and Community of Jena,
Louisiana — a radio story about the racial tension
and incidents in Jena, Louisiana that have led to six African
American youth being charged and incarcerated.
Blacks Strip Slaveholders’ Names Off Schools
— a lesson plan based on a 1997 New York Times article about
community members changing the name of a school in New Orleans,
from George Washington Elementary to Dr. Charles Richard Drew
Elementary — includes the NYTimes article, letters written by
Washington, and other materials.
A Book Examines Towns That Forced Out Blacks — a
radio interview with journalist and author Elliot Jaspin, who’s
book, Buried in the Bitter Waters: The Hidden History of Racial
Cleansing in America, presents history and analysis of 12 incidents
in the U.S. of towns driving out blacks — and the counties these
towns are in remain almost entirely white.
African Americans and Formal Education in the American
South — valuable historical information.
Racial Bias in U.S. Dietary Guidelines, Part 1
— a research-based discussion of guidelines that promote dairy
consumption whan a majority of people of color are genetically
and Notes — an excellent national radio program, no
longer being broadcast, that explored important events and issues
“from an African American perspective.” You may listen here to past
shows and segments.
A Close Bond Sheds Light on Race Relations — a radio
segment about two young women, H.S. seniors and friends, one black
and one white — discussion of their friendship, similarities, and
differences in experience.
— a “journal for literary and artistic African-American themes” —
lots of interesting articles discussing history, racism,
literature, and current events.
Americans in Science — an excellent site with
extensive resources about African-Americans in science.
of the African Diaspora — important information and
Using Children’s Literature and Art to Examine the
African-American Resistance to Injustice — a
curricular unit plan by a teacher in the Yale-New Haven Teachers
African and African-American Resources — good
links for teaching provided by the Philadelphia School
Women of the Movement Bios — brief but
effective biographies of women centrally involved in the Civil
Rights Movement — very useul for developing lesson plans and
learning about the role of women in this important struggle.
American Bibliography: Books for Children — a well
organized list of good books about African American experience,
people, and characters.
Teaching about Africa K-12 — a page of
resources created by the Stanford University library.
Groves Writing Project — a successful multicultural
approach to the teaching of writing — this program has been
written about in a number of books and articles about effective use
of culture in designing and delivering instruction.
the Gaps — a great website about “women writers of
color” — good bios and links.
Think — an interesting media production program for
youth that teaches critical media literacy and other important
The Power of an Illusion — an online resource for an
excellent documentary about race in society, science, and history
— includes background readings, a discussion/activities guide, and
other good materials for teachers.
ColorLines — an
excellent magazine about issues of race, ethnicity, and racism.
Race in America: Beyond Black and White — a
series of interviews with experts, academics, politicians, and
activists about the current state of race relations in America.
and Nativism in American Political Culture — a
collection of curricular unit plans created by teachers in the
Yale-New Haven Teachers Insititute.
World — a Public Broadcasting site with good
historical and other information and resources.
in Mississippi, 1954-1982 — a good radio segment
about failed attempts to desegregate schools in Mississippi.
American History (The History Net) — an excellent
African American history site, with primary documents, photos,
biographies, and much more — lots of great links and
The Souls of
Black Folk — W.E.B. Du Bois’ classic and important
book, published in 1903. Du Bois wrote in his introduction: “Herein
lie buried many things which if read with patience may show the
strange meaning of being black here in the dawning of the Twentieth
Century. This meaning is not without interest to you, Gentle
Reader; for the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of
American History — another good site with teaching
Brother — a long running public-affairs television
program dedicated to the African American experience — started in
1968, the program has featured conversations and discussions with
Julian Bond, Nikki Giovanni, Eartha Kitt, and other leaders within
the African-American community.
American History List — links to many of the best
African American history sites and museums.
Schomburg — an online archive of manuscripts at the
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in NYC — lots of
good materials for classroom and other use.
Gateway to African American History — a very useufl
web portal with lots of links.
American Odyssey — African American collections of
the Library of Congress.
African American Women — a collection of
materials at Duke University, including letters and memoirs of 19th
century slave women.
Bringing the Civil Rights Movement into the Classroom
— an article about how one teacher teaches the Civil Rights
Movement as an important and valuable act of resistance in U.S.
of the Heart — a documentary that tells the
little-known story of the collaboration between white surgeon,
Alfred Blalock and his African American “assistant,” Vivien Thomas.
Blalock recognized Thomas’ talents when Thomas came inquiring after
a hospital janitor’s job. Thomas went on to invent many important
procedures for open heart surgery, despite the fact that he did not
have a medical degree and was rarely treated as an equal. Blalock
came to treat Thomas with tremendous respect in the lab, but the
two men were rarely treated as equals in the outside world. Over
time, Thomas would go on to train two generations of the country’s
premier heart surgeons. In 1976, more than three decades after
Thomas’ first inventions successes, Johns Hopkins University
finally formally recognized his extraordinary achievements,
awarding him an honorary doctorate.
in Civil Rights: Dorothy E. Davis, et al. versus County School
Board of Prince Edward County, Virginia — this is an
important 1951 court case that led to the 1954 Brown v. Board of
Education case that finally brought down the “separate but equal”
Jim Crow laws and apartheid of the U.S. — this website provides
good primary source documents and lesson plans for teaching about
the Dorothy Davis case, in which a group of courageous Black
students protested the inferior nature of their school.
Doll Cultural Study Had Impact on ‘Brown v.
Board’ — audio segment from NPR that describes the
impact the doll studies conducted by Kenneth and Mamie Clark had on
the Brown v. Board of Education decision.
the History of Slavery and Racism — website that
provides a detailed history of the institutions of slavery and
racism in the United States.
PBS Ask the Experts: Are We Ready for a Colorblind
Society? — website discussing the pros and cons of
Dave Chappelle on Inside the Actors Studio — part of
this television episode shows comedian Dave Chappelle discussing
issues of African American Vernacular English. (Starts around
National Association for
the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) — one of
the nation’s largest civil rights organizations — its mission is
to promote equality and eliminate prejudice among all people.
Rights in Mississippi Digital Archive — online
resources, including oral histories and manuscripts about the
state’s civil rights struggle.
American History through the Arts — articles and art
— from traditional to contemporary.
African Odyssey — links to indexes and
curriculum-based resources for teaching about the arts and culture
Forget — a digital history project by the Schomburg
Center for Research in Black Culture, about the history of and
struggle against slavery.
Internet African American History Challenge —
questions, at different levels of difficulty, about African
American history — take the quizzes yourself and use them as
American History Site — another good site with
Historical Museum & Cultural Center of Iowa —
useful information and some good lesson plans and teaching
Hop: Today’s Civil Right’s Movement? — a good radio
program about the political nature and power of Hip Hop.
Hip Hop 101: Curriculum Guide — information about a
curricular guide put together by an organzation called Art
Hop Education Guidebook: Vol. 1 — a site where you
can order this book full of lesson plan ideas using hip hop.
Educators Use Rap as a Teaching Tool — a radio
broadcast about teachers who are using hip-hop effectively to make
connections between contemporary music/poetry and the classics —
scroll to the bottom of the page, click and listen.
The Evolution of Rap Music in the United
States — a good article made available at the
Yale-New Haven Teachers Institue website — includes some lesson
plan ideas, too.
Hip Hop Education — an article about Martha Diaz and
her efforts to combine hip hop and filmmaking to teach reading,
writing, and more.
H2Ed — the
website of this innovative program and organization that “connects
educators, social workers, parents, and youth to use Hip-Hop
culture as an effective way to inform, educate, and activate youth”
— started by Marth Diaz and Tricia Wing — soon they will have
lesson plans and more at this website.
History of Hip Hop — a brief and useful overview
History 101 — more good articles and links.
A Hip Hop
Bibliography — a good list of books and articles.
Underground Hip Hop: Conflict Honored, Jewels Kicked, and Hope
Elevated — an effective “literary” analysis of some
hip-hop for use in the classroom.
Poetry, Jazz, Rap, and Hip Hop for the Classroom — a
The Original Hip Hop
Lyrics Archive — a large archive of lyrics to many
important hip hop songs.
Tank — a site for the “body of thinkers in the hip
hop community” — interesting articles and links.
Nuttin’ But Stringz: Hip Hop Violin — a radio segment
about a pair of Julliard-trained, violin playing African American
brothers who are making their own music.
The Hip Hop Violin and String Quartets of Haitian American
Composer, Daniel Bernard Roumain — a radio segment
about Roumain and his hip hop compositions — includes audio clips
of his work, as performed by the Lark String Quartet.
Exploring African Hip Hop — a radio review of CD’s by
two African hip hop groups whose music “embodies ways that Africans
are debating their cultural identity through music.”
Rokia Traore, Zap Mama and Erykah Badu — an interview
with Rokia Traore, an incredible singer from Mali — the segment
about polyphony is an excellent musical example of a deep African
and African American cultural value.
Radio’s Website about Jazz — includes historical
material, audio clips, and more.
Intersections: August Wilson, Writing to the Blues —
a National Public Radio site and program about Pulitzer Prize
winner August Wilson who has spent more than 20 years writing a
cycle of plays that chronicle black life in 20th-century America,
decade by decade. Wilson says he first discovered the language of
the black experience in Bessie Smith’s blues.
Good Times Roll — a radio program of excellent and
insightful programs presenting a history of rhythm and blues —
many programs and lots of music and valuable information and
Claude Williams: Biography — the life story of a
great African American jazz/swing violinist and guitar player who
received the National Endowment of the Arts Heritage Award.
A Jazz Profile of Claude Williams — a radio program
about Claude Williams, a great African American jazz/swing
violinist and guitar player.
Baker Project — The mission of the Etta Baker Project
is to promote and preserve the rich musical legacy of Etta Baker.
The Etta Baker Project web site provides information and links to
articles, audio, video recordings, and guitar tab for those who
want to delve more deeply into Etta Baker’s musical
expression and contribution.
Video of Stuff Smith — a YouTube video of Stuff
Smith, one of the all-time great jazz violinists.
Violin Link — an excellent source of information and
websites about Black violinists, composers, and more — jazz,
classical, and other forms of music represented — did you know
Frederick Douglass, the great orator and activist, played
Black History and Classical Music — a great website
devoted to composers of African descent — includes samples to
listen to and lots of good links.
Music Recordings of Black Composers — lots of good
information about African American composers.
of African Descent — more good
information about composers of African descent.
Baseball League — history and memorabilia
Beyond the Playing Field – Jackie Robinson, Civil Rights
Advocate — Jackie Robinson not only broke the “color
barrier” in major league baseball, but he was a life-long civil
rights activist. This site provides some great primary source
materials and lesson plans about this important aspect of Jackie
Robinson’s life and character.
History Month — activities and information to
complement classroom topics.
Online — an online searchable database of facts about
Information Center — good information and materials
about this important annual and international celebration of people
of African descent.
Official Kwanzaa Website — site by the founder of
the Net — lots of good explanatory information and
materials in support of the celebration of Kwanzaa.
Afrika — a dance group that celebrates stepping, “an
art form born at African American fraternities and based in Afriacn
Official Website of Malcolm X — good biographical
material, quotes, and much more.
Shootings and White Denial — an internet article by
Tim Wise, “School Shootings and White Denial” has generated
valuable discussion of issues of race and racist stereotypes — you
will find his article and more at this site.
Museum of Racist Memorabilia — an online museum of
racist objects that are powerful primary sources in helping educate
about the depth, extent, and nature of racism in the U.S.
Stereotypes of African Americans — a
Wikipedia discussion of the many ways in which negative stereotypes
of African Americans have been presented and reinforced, both
historically and in the present.
Racial Stereotypes in the
Media — a good article presenting
and discussing the damaging effects of racial stereotypes presented
in the media.
Miss Representin’: A Historical Analysis of the Images of
African American Women in Situation Comedies — a good
2006 article with lots of useful history, concepts, data, and
The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in
America — a good book from 2001, by Robert Entman
& Andrew Rojecki, almost all of which is available here online
— the book presents a critical analysis of stereotypes and how
they reinforce White assumptions about and reactions to African
Hostility to Reverence: 100 Years of African-American Imagery in
Games — an article about the history of racist
imagery in children’s games.
Black Males and Images in the Media —
reflection on an art exhibit, “African-American Representation of
Masculinity” — working to move beyond stereotypes.
of the Black Male in Film — a good article about this
important issue — includes history and current analysis.
Side of Sunday — an article about a book in which pro
football is criticized for its racist treatment of players.
Anti-Racist Alliance — an organization committed to
bringing “anti-racist structural power analysis to social service
education and practice.” They “move beyond a focus on the symptoms
of racism to an understanding of what racism is, where it comes
from, how it functions, why it persists and how it can be
Black Issues in Higher Education — the nation’s only
magazine dedicated exclusively to minority issues in higher
education. Articles are not strictly related to African American
issues in education, but also cover issues faced by Native
Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic American, women, and people
Becoming an Anti-Racist White Ally: How a White Affinity
Group Can Help — a 2009 article about a “white ally”
group and how it supported a group of white educators in becoming
more anti-racist in their work and lives.
Center for the
Study of White American Culture — the homepage for
this organization that encourages whites to better understand their
own cultures and their role in helping create a fair and just
Studies: Deconstructing (the) Race — a website about
whiteness studies as an “attempt to trace the economic and
political history behind the invention of ‘whiteness,’ to attack
the privileges given to so-called ‘whites,’ and to analyze the
cultural practices (in art, music, literature, and popular media)
that create and perpetuate notions of ‘whiteness.'”
Whiteness Studies and the Multicultural Literature
Classroom — an article about the value of including
whiteness studies in a multicultural approach to literature.
about Whiteness — a set of ideas and activities for
teaching about whiteness as a racial and cultural category —
especially useful when teaching about issues of race and
African American Images in Picture Books — a
bibliography of children’s books.
Afro Page Review — a very rich collection of links on
many topics, including the arts, parenting, the student experience,
and much more — highly recommended..
Tangled Roots Project— historical information about
the shared roots of African Americans and Irish Americans.
Identity Development of Multiracial Youth — a 1998
digest about some important issues and considerations concerning
the experiences of interracial youth.
Schooling of Multiracial Youth — a 1998 digest about
what educators can and should do to address the needs of
interracial youth in schools.
Black — a “funky, alternative site for black reviews,
opinions, and voice” — good articles on a range of topics and some
good links to other interesting sites.
USA — an “independent source of news for the African
American community” — news items that come from a wire service
made up exclusively of black journalists and press outlets — also
includes links to local black press websites.
Commentator — an online publication that offers
commentary and analysis on issues facing the black community —
smart commentary on important social and political issues.
Stripe — “news, information, and culture affecting
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered people of African
Black Parenting Today — a
magazine whose mission is to “share information about issues of
importance to parents and guardians of African American children,
and those who agree that responsible parenting is key to
strengthening the black community and securing our future.”
Citizen — a newspaper published in Highland Park, MI
that is written primarily for African Americans and covers a
variety of topics including issues of education.
Indianapolis Recorder — a weekly newspaper that is
“preparing a conscious community today and beyond” — it started in
1897 and focused initially on local news — it has since expanded
and has been called an “advocate for and reporter of the Black
community” by historian Richard Pierce.
— No Way: Recognizing Racism in Schools — this is an
Australian website with articles on racism.
Confederate Flag is a RACIST Symbol — this site
argues for that the Confederate flag is a racist symbol and has no
place in society.
Robes and Midnight Fright: Why I’m Offended by the Confederate
Flag — a chilling personal account of why the
Confederate flag offends and should not be accepted as a symbol of
Over Speech — this site explores whether the term
redneck is a racist word and creates ill will.
African American Health Issues — a good website with
links and resources.
Health Gap — “an educational campaign designed to
help make good health an important issue among racial and ethnic
minority populations who are affected by serious diseases and
health conditions at far greater rates than other Americans.”
“Colorblind” Attack on Your Health — an online
article from the magazine, Colorlines, about the racial disparities
in healthcare and medical treatment and services.
Minority and Multicultural Health — a website by the
New Jersey Dept. of Health with useful information about cultural
competency in providing health services to diverse populations.
African American Entrepreneurs — a website created by
the organization Fight for Hope. The site is dedicated to telling
the stories of successful African American entrepreneurs in order
to inspire youth within the community.
Some Good Books & Articles
Alim, H. 2007. Talkin Black Talk: Language, Education, and
Social Change. Teachers College Press.
Alland, A. 2002. Race in Mind: Race, IQ, and Other Racisms.
Arboleda, T. 1998. In the Shadow of Race: Growing Up as a
Multiethnic, Multiracial American. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Artiles, A. & Trent, S. 1994. Overrepresentation of Minority
Students in Special Education: A Continuing Debate. Journal of
Special Education, 27: 410-437.
Artiles, A., Harry, B., Reschly, D. & Chinn, P. 2001.
Over-Identification of Students of Color in Special Education: A
Critical Overview. Monarch Center, University of Illinois
Bakari, R. 2003. Preservice Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Teaching
African american Students. Urban Education, 38(6): 640-654.
Bell, D. 1992. Faces at the Bottom of the Well. Basic Books.
Bigelow, B. et al., (Ed.) 1994. Rethinking our Classrooms:
Teaching for Equity and Justice. Rethinking Schools. Rethinking
Bigelow, B. et al., (Ed.) 2001. Rethinking Our Classrooms:
Teaching for Equity and Justice, Volume 2. Rethinking Schools.
Bolgatz, J. 2005. Talking Race in the Classroom. Teachers
Bonilla-Silva, E. 2003. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind
Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United
States. Rowman and Littlefield.
Bowen, W. and Bok, D. 1998. The Shape of the River: Long-Term
Consequences of Considering Race in College and University
Admissions. Princeton Univ. Press.
Boyd, H. & Allen, R. 1995. Brotherman: The Odyssey of Black
Men in America — An Anthology. Ballantine.
Boyd, T. 2003. The New H.N.I.C.: The Death of Civil Rights and
the Reign of Hip Hop. New York Univ. Press.
Braithwaite, R. &Taylor, S. (Eds.) 2001. Health Issues in
the Black Community. Jossey-Bass.
Brown, M. et al. 2003. Whitewashing Race: The Myth of a
Color-Blind Society. University of California Press.
Byrd, A. and Tharps, L. 2001. Hair Story: Untangling the Roots
of Black Hair in America. St. Martin Press.
Carbado, D. et al., 2002. Black Like Us: A Century of Lesbian,
Gay, and Bisexual African American Fiction. Cleis Press.
Carr, L. 1997. “Color-Blind” Racism. Sage.
Carter, D. 2008. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a
Critical Race Achievement Ideology Among Black Achievers. Harvard
Educational Review, 78(3).
Champion, T. 2003. Understanding Storytelling Among African
American Children: A Journey from Africa to America. Lawrence
Chideya, F. 1995. Don’t Believe the Hype: Fighting Cultural
Misinformation about African Americans. Plume/Penguin.
Chideya, F. 1999. The Color of Our Future: Race for the 21st
Chuck D, and Jah, Y. 1997. Fight the Power: Rap, Race, and
Reality. Delta Books.
Collier-Thomas, B. & Franklin, V. P. 2001. Sisters in the
Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights – Black Power
Movement. New York University Press.
Comer, J. & Poussaint, A. 1992. Raising Black Children.
Conchas, G. 2006. The Color of Success: Race and High Achieving
Urban Youth. Teachers College Press.
Connor, D. 2006. Michael’s Story: “I Get Into So Much
Trouble Just by Walking”: Narrative Knowing and Life at the
Intersections of Learning Disability, Race, and Class. Equity &
Excellence in Education, 39(2): 154-165.
Cose, E. 1995. The Rage of a Privileged Class: Why Are Middle
Class Blacks Angry? Harper.
Cose, E. 2002. The Envy of the World: On Being a Black Man in
America. Washington Square Press.
Delpit, L. 1995. Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in
the Classroom. The New Press.
Delpit, L. & Dowdy, J. (Eds) 2002. The Skin that We Speak:
Thoughts on Language and Culture in the Classroom. New Press.
Derman Sparks, L. 1997. Teaching/Learning Anti-Racism. Teachers
Dimitriades, G. 2001. Performing Identity/Performing Culture:
Hip-Hop as Text, Pedagogy, and Lived Practice. Peter Lang
Donaldson, K. 1996. Through Students’ Eyes: Combating Racism in
United States Schools. Praeger.
Du Bois, W.E.B. 1903. The Souls of Black Folk. A.C. McClurg.
Dyson, A. H. 2003. The Brothers and Sisters Learn to Write:
Popular Literacies in Childhood and School Cultures. Teachers
Dyson, M. 1996. Between God and Gangsta Rap: Bearing Witness to
Black Culture. Oxford.
Dyson, M. 1996. Race Rules: Navigating the Color Line.
Epstein, T. 1998. Deconstructing Differences in African-American
and European-American Adolescents’ Perspectives on U.S. History.
Curriculum Inquiry, 28(4): 397-423.
Epstein, T. 2000. Adolescents’ Perspective on Racial diversity
in United States History: Case Studies from an Urban Classroom.
American Educational Research Journal, 37: 185-214.
Epstein, T. 2009. Interpreting National History: Race, Identity,
and Pedagogy in Classrooms and Communities. Routledge.
Evans-Winters, V. 2005. Teaching Black Girls: Resiliency in
Urban Classrooms. Peter Lang.
Feagin, J, & McKinney, K. 2003. The Many Costs of Racism.
Ford, D. 1996. Reversing Underachievement among Gifted Black
Students: Promising Practices.
Fordham, S. & Ogbu, J. 1986. Black Students’ School Success:
Coping with the Burden of “Acting White.” Urban Review, 18:
Fordham, S. 1996. Blacked Out: Dilemmas of Race, Identity, and
Success at Capital High. Chicago University Press.
Foster, M. 1997. Black Teachers on Teaching. The New Press.
Foster, M. & Peele, T. 1999. Teaching Black Males: Lessons
from the Experts, in Polite, V. & Davis, J. (Eds.) African
American Males in School and Society: Practices & Policies for
Effective Education. Teachers College Press.
Fouche, R. 2005. Black Inventors in the Age of Segregation.
Johns Hopkins University Press.
Fricke, J. & Ahearn, C. 2002. Yes Yes Y’all: Oral History of
Hip-Hop’s First Decade. Persues Press.
Garrod, A. et. al. 1999. Souls Looking Back: Life Stories of
Growing Up Black. Routledge.
Gaskin, P. 1999. What Are You? Voices of Mixed Race Young
People. Henry Holt.
Gay, G. 2000. Culturally Responsive Teaching. Teachers College
Gentry, A. 1994. Learning to Survive: Black Youth Look for
Education and Hope.
George, Nelson. 1998. Hip-Hop America. Viking.
Giddings, G. 2001. Infusions of Afrocentric Content into the
School Curriculum. Toward an Effective Movement. Journal of Black
Studies, 31: 462-482.
Ginwright, S. 2004. Black in School: Afrocentric Reform, Urban
Youth, and the Promise of Hip-Hop Culture. Teachers College
Ginwright, S. 2009. Black Youth Rising: Activism and Radical
Healing in Urban America. Teachers College Press.
Gold, B. 2007. Still Separate and Unequal: Segregation and the
Future of Urban School Reform. Teachers College Press.
Golden, M. 2004. Don’t Play in the Sun: One Woman’s
Journey Through the Color Complex. Doubleday.
Hacker, A. 1992. Two Nations: Black & White, Separate,
Hostile, Unequal. Scribners
Hale, J. 1986. Black Children: Their Roots, Culture and Learning
Styles. Johns Hopkins Univeristy Press.
Hale, J. 1994. Unbank the Fire: Visions for the Education of
African American Children. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press
Hale, J. & Franklin, V. 2001. Learning While Black: Creating
Educational Excellence for African American Children. Johns Hopkins
Harris, J., Kamhi, A., & Pollack, K. (Eds.) 2001. Literacy
in African American Communities. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Harry, B. and Klingner, J. 2006. Why Are So Many Minority
Students in Special Education? Understanding Race and Disability in
Schools. Teachers College Press.
hooks, b. 1992. Black Looks: Race and Representation. South End
Hopkins, R. 1997. Educating Black Males: Critical Lessons in
Schooling, Community and Power. SUNY Press.
Howard, T. 2001. Telling Their side of the Story:African
American Students’ Perceptions of Culturally Relevant Teaching. The
Urban Review, 33(2), 131-149.
Howard, T. 2010. Why Race and Culture Matter in Schools: Closing
the Achievement Gap in America’s Classrooms. Teachers College
Hughes, S. & Berry, T. (Ed.) 2011. The Evolving
Significance of Race: Living, Learning, and Teaching. Peter
Irvine, J. 2002. In Search of Wholeness: African American
Teachers and Their Culturally Specific Classroom Practices.
Jaspin, E. 2007. Buried in the Bitter Waters: The Hidden History
of Racial Cleansing in America. basic Books.
Jencks, C. & Phillips, M. (Eds.) 1998. The Black-White
Test-Score Gap.The Brookings Institute.
Kailin, J. 1999. How White Teachers Perceive the Problem of
Racism in Their Schools: A Case Study in “Liberal” Lakeview.
Teachers College Record, 100(4): 724-50.
Kailin, J. 2002. Antiracist Education: From Theory to Practice.
Rowman and Littlefield.
Keyes, C. 2002. Rap Music and Street Consciousness. Univ. of
Khmelkov, V. & Hallinan, M. 1999. Organizational Effects on
Race Relations in Schools. Journal of Social Issues, 55(4):
Kitwana, B. 2002. The Hip Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the
Crisis in African American Culture. Basic Books.
Krims, A. 2000. Rap Music and the Poetics of Identity. Cambrdige
Kunjufu, J. 1997. Countering the Conspiracy to Destroy Black
Boys. African American Images.
Kunjufu, J. 1997. Critical Issues in Educating African American
Youth (A Talk With Jawanza). African American Images.
Kunjufu, J. 1997. Developing Positive Self-Images and Discipline
in Black Children. African American Images.
Kunjufu, J. 1997. Motivating and Preparing Black Youth for
Success. African American Images.
Kunjufu, J. 2002. Black Students/Middle Class Teachers. African
Kunjufu, J. & Hawkins, L. 1997. Motivating and Preparing
Black Youth for Success. African American Images.
Ladson-Billings, G. 1994. The Dreamkeepers: Successful Teachers
of African American Children. Jossey-Bass.
Ladson-Billings, G. 1998. From Soweto to the South Bronx:
African Americans and colonial education in the United States. In
C. Torres and T. Mitchell (Eds.) Sociology of Education: Emerging
Perspectives. SUNY Press.
Ladson-Billings, G. 2001. Crossing Over to Canaan: The Journey
of New Teachers in Diverse Classrooms. Jossey-Bass.
Landsman, J. 2001. A White Teacher Talks About Race. Scarecrow
Landsman, J. & Lewis, C. (Ed.) 2006. White Teachers/Diverse
Classrooms. Stylus Press.
Lawrence, S. & Bunche, T. 1996. Feeling and Dealing:
Teaching White Students about Racial Privilege. Teaching and
Teacher Education, 12(5): 531-542.
Lee, E. et al., 1998. Beyond Heroes and Holidays: A Practical
Guide to K-12 Anti-Racist, Multiculutral Education. Network of
Educators on the Americas.
Lewis, A. 2003. Race In the Schoolyard: Negotiating the Color
Line in Classrooms and Communities. Rutgers Univ. Press.
Lipsitz, G. 1998. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness:
How White People Profit from Identity Politics. Temple
Lomotey, K. 1990. Going to School, The African American
Experience. SUNY Press.
Lopez, N. 2003. Hopeful Girls, Troubled Boys: Race and
Gender Disparity in Urban Education. Routledge.
Losen, D. and Orfield, G. 2002. Racial Inequity and Special
Education. Harvard Education Press.
Mahiri, J. 1998. Shooting for Excellence: African American
and Youth Culture in New Century Schools. Teachers College
Majors, R. (Ed.) 2001. Educating Our Black Children: New
Directions and Radical Approaches. Routledge/Falmer.
Manning, K. 1985. Black Apollo of Science: The Life of
Ernest Everett Just. Oxford Univ Press.
Marable, M. 2000. How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black
America. South End Press.
McCall, N. 1994. Makes Me Wanna Holler: A Young Black Man in
McDuffie, T. & George, R. 2009. School Day Eating Habits of
Inner-City, African American Adolescents. The Journal of Negro
Education, 78(2): 114-22.
Moody, V. 2004. Sociocultural Orientations and the Mathematical
Success of African American Students. The Journal of
Educational Research, 97(3): 135-147.
Morris, V. & Morris, C. 2000. Creating Caring and
Nurturing Educational Environments for African American
Children. Bergin and Garvey/Greenwood Publishing.
Morris, V. & Morris, C. 2002. The Price They Paid:
Desegregation in an African American Community. Teachers
Moses, M. 2002. Embracing Race: Why We Need Race-Conscious
Education Policy. Teachers College Press.
Moses, R. & Cobb, C. 2001. Radical Equations: Civil
Right from Mississippi to the Algebra Project. Beacon
Murrell, P. 2002. African-Centered Pedagogy: Developing
Schools of Achievement for African American Children. State
Univ of New York Press.
Noguera, P & Wing, J. (Eds.). 2006. Unfinished Business:
Closing the Racial Achievement Gap in Our Schools.
Noguera, P. 2009. The Trouble With Black Boys: And Other
Reflections on Race, Equity, and the Future of Public
Obidah, J. & Teel, K. 2001. Because of the Kids: Facing
Racial and Cultural Differences in Schools. Teachers College
Ogbu, J. 1974. The Next Generation: An Ethnography of
Education in an Urban Neighborhood. Academic Press.
Ogbu, J. 1982. Cultural Discontinuities and Schooling.
Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 13(4): 290-307.
Ogbu, J. 1999. Beyond Language: Ebonics, Proper English, and
Identity in a Black-American Speech Community. American
Educational Research Journal, 36(2): 147-184.
Orfield, G., Eaton, S. & Jones, E. 1997. Dismantling
Desegregation: The Quiet Reversal of Brown V. Board of
Education. New Press.
Orfield, G. & Losen, D. (Eds.) 2002. Racial Inequity in
Special Education. Harvard University Press.
Paley, V. 1989. White Teacher. Harvard University
Paley, V. 1995. Kwanzaa and Me: A Teacher’s Story.
Harvard University Press.
Patillo-Coy, M. 1999. Black Picket Fences: Privilege and
Peril Among the Black Middle Class. University of Chicago
Perry, M. 2000. Walking the Color Line: The Art and Practice
of Anti-Racist Teaching. Teachers College Press.
Perry, T. (Ed.) 1996. Teaching Malcolm X.
Perry, T. & Delpit, L. 1998. The Real Ebonics Debate:
Power, Language, and the Education of African-American
Perry, T., Steele, C., & Hilliard, A. 2003. Young,
Gifted and Black: Promoting High Achievement among African-American
Students. Beacon Press.
Pollock, M. 2004. Colormute: Race Talk Dilemmas in an
American School. Princeton University Press.
Pollock, M. (Ed.) 2008. Everyday Anti-Racism: Getting Real
About Race in School. The New Press.
Polite, V. & Davis, J. (Eds.) 1999. African American
Males in School and Society: Practices & Policies for Effective
Education. Teachers College Press.
Richeson, J. & Nussbaum, R. 2004. The Impact of
Multiculturalism Versus Color-Blindness on Racial Bias. Journal
of Experimental Social Psychology, 40: 417-423.
Robbins, C. 2005. Zero Tolerance and the Politics of Racial
Injustice. The Journal Negro Education, 74: 2-17.
Rose, T. 1994. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in
Contemporary America. Wesleyan University Press.
Russell, M. 2005. Untapped Talent and Unlimited Potential:
African American Students and the Science Pipeline. Negro
Educational Review, 56(2/3).
Rowley, S., et al., 1998. The Relationship between Racial
Identity and Self-Esteem in African American College and High
School Students. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 74(3): 715-724.
Sampson, D. & Garrison-Wade, D. 2011. Cultural Vibrancy:
Exploring the Preferences of African American Children Toward
Culturally Relevant and Non-Culturally Relevant Lessons. Urban
Review, 43(2): 279-309.
Shipler, D. 1997. A Country of Strangers: Black and White in
Smitherman, G. 1991. Talking and Testifyin: Black English
and the Black Experience. In Reginald Jones (Ed.) Black
Psychology. Cobb & Henry.
Steinhorn, L.& Diggs-Brown, B. 2000. By the Color of Our
Skin: The Illusion of Integration and the Reality of Race.
Street, P. 2005. Segregated Schools: Educational Apartheid
in Post-Civil Rights America. Routledge.
Suskind, R. 1998. A Hope in the Unseen: An American Odyssey
from the Inner City to the Ivy League. Broadway.
Tatum, A. 2005. Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males:
Closing the Achievement Gap. Stenhouse Publishers.
Tatum, A. 2006. Engaging African American Males in
Reading. Educational Leadership, February.
Tatum, B. 1998. Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together
in the Cafeteria? And Other Conversations About Race. Basic
Teel, K. & Obidah, J. 2008. Building Racial and Cultural
Competence in the Classroom: Strategies from Urban Educators.
Teachers College Press.
Thompson, G. 2002. African American Teens Discuss Their
Schooling Experiences. Greenwood Press.
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Films and Videos
Eyes on the Prize, 1987 — a powerful, award-winning series of
documentary films about the Civil Rights struggle, 1954-1965.
Ethnic Notions, 1987 — traces deeply rooted stereotypes.
Color Adjustment, 1991 — a history of race relations in the
U.S. as revealed in prime time television.
The Color of Fear, 1994 — a very powerful documentary about a
diverse group of American men discussing racism.
of Race, 2000 — a four part video series that explores the
history, legacy, present, and future of issues of race and racism
in the U.S.
Two Towns of
Jasper — a powerful film about black and white perspectives in
Jasper, Texas, where, in 1998, an African American man, James Byrd,
was dragged to death behind a truck by three white men. A white
film crew covered the trials as it was seen by whites, and a black
crew explored the perceptions of African-Americans. The result is
an explicit and troubling portrait of race in America.
Burden, 2003 — “One of the best video histories of the
desegregation era ever produced.” — a film about a Black family
that in 1965 enrolled eight of their children in a previously all
white school in Drew, Mississippi.
The House We Live In, 2003 — an excellent 3-part series
exploring the history of race perceptions and relations in the U.S.
— documents ways in which institutions create and reinforce race
Beyond Beats and Rhymes — a documentary that explores the
hyper-masculinity, sexism, and homophobia of much commercial hip
hop, putting this issue in a larger context and raising important
questions about the corporate structures and practices that foster
and promote this approach to hip-hop.